Using Earth's most powerful array of radio telescopes, astronomers have made the first judgment of a gas and dust shield plane disk, like those believed to have reached Jupiter's months.
The discovery, which today reported online in the Astrophysical Journal Letters, adds to the intriguing story of planet PDS 70c, an ever-growing host of 370 light-years from & # 39; the earth is in & # 39; the visible light images only in & # 39; was discovered last month.
Mei the massive 66-antenna Atacama Large Millimeter / submillimeter array (ALMAIn Chile, Rice University astronomer Andrea Isella and colleague's collected millimeter radio signals that show the presence of dust in a star system where PDS 70c has sister planet, PDS 70b still form.
"Planets form gas and dust disks for new structural stars, and if a planet is large enough, it can form its own disk, because the material in its orbit around the star collects," Isella said. "Jupiter and his months are a small planetarium system within our solar system, for example, and it believed that Jupiter formed its months from a devastating disc then" Jupiter was very young. "
But most models of the planetary formation show that shield planetary discs disappear in about 10 million years, which means planboards no longer have in our solar system for more than 4 billion years. To look for other places and observing evidence to study theory of planetary formation, visit Isella and colleague's for very young star systems where they can find places and planets. still in their form. In & # 39; the new study, Isella and colleague & # 39; s analyzed ALMA's assessments in 2017.
"There are a handful of candidate planets that have been discovered in disks, but this is a whole new field, and they are still debate," Isella said. "(PDS 70b and PDS 70c) are among the most robust because there are independent observations with different instruments and techniques."
PDS 70 is a thirst test over about three quarters of a year the mass of one's sun. Both of their planets are 5-10 times larger than Jupiter, and the inverted PDS 70 b, runs about 1.8 million miles from the star, roughly the distance from & # 39; a sun to Uranus. PDS 70c is a billion miles further, in orbit across the size of Neptune's.
PDS 70b was released in infrared light images in 2018 through a planetary hunting instrument SPHERE at the European Social Observatory in a large telescope (VLT). In June, astronomers used another VLT instrument MUSE known to make a visible wavelength of light known as H-alpha, which is created when hot water falls on a star or planet and is ionized.
"H-alpha gives us more confidence that this is planets, it suggests they still draw and grow in gas and dust," Isella said.
ALMA's millimeterwavelength observations provide even more evidence.
"It is complex for the optical data and completely independent confirmation that there is something," he said.
Isella said direct observation of planets with circumplanetary discs may allow astronomers to investigate theory from the planetary formation.
"It is much that we do not understand how to form planets, and we finally have the tools to make direct judgments and start up questions about how to shape our solar system and how other planets could form. "
Isella is an assistant professor of physics and astronomy and of earth, environmental and planetary sciences at Rice and a co-investigator of the Rice-based NASA-based project CLEVER Planets.
Students co-authors are Myriam Benisty of both the Universidad de Chile and the Universite Grenoble Alpes, Richard Teague of Michigan University, Jaehan Bae of & # 39; a Carnegie Institute for Science, Miriam Keppler of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Stefano Facchini of the European Southern Observatory and Laura Pérez of the University of Chile.
The research was supported by the National Science Foundation, the National Research Research Agency, NASA, the Chile National Commission for Scientific and Technological Research, the Chilean National Fund for Scientific and Technological Development, the European Union Horizon 2020 and the European Soarch Observatory.