Wednesday , July 28 2021

The scientists first had to see a black hole. What will man give?



On April 10, the world first saw a black hole in a photograph. This super-massive object is 53 million light-years of earth and looks like a dark circle with an orange halo. In spite of the fact that many people know what a black hole looks like, before all photos are re-recorded based on solutions of Einstein's consistency. Now scientists are sure: black holes really look like they are represented. Lenta.ru tells how it's taken the photo and what it means for science.

Invisible samples

The black hole, named by the Hawaiian name Poehi (Powehi) – "a deep creation that is not decorated with a dark source – has hitherto been the world that it is impossible to use in detail with one radio telescope, like other black holes, it is an object of enormous closeness and has a powerful gravity that makes itself a space-time continuum, so the cymbal is so large that it offers an area there & # 39; From the possible outside trajectories, the boundary of this area is called the event horizon, and everything that it does (visible light and other electromagnetic wells) cannot come back.

In the past decades, scientists have not been confronted with the existence of black holes, though the nature of these objects affects direct observation. Researchers used indirect methods, including evaluating objects that run around empty areas of space, or measuring the mass and size of objects that are intense punishments. But for the blacks of & horizon's & # 39; to see an event against the light background of stars and gas, no one followed.

Bit by bit

In order to photograph a black hole, you need a telescope the size of the earth and another important tool – an algorithm that will bring the data into a definite image. Kathy Bowman – one of the researchers who worked on this algorithm, while still studying computers to access images based on sound information. In conjunction with supervisor Bill Freeman, she developed a method of acknowledging objects that are "encrypted" in shared shadows, which deny the corners of buildings. As a result, it was possible to see what was behind these corners.

Event Horizon Telescope is a uniform network of eight observatories around the world, of which radio telescopes are synchronized with ultra-performance atomic clocks. In spite of the fact that they operate as one large telescope with a diameter of 10 thousand kilometers, such a system is even less inferior to an imaginary radio telescope with a plate of a comparable size in condition of the amount received. This restriction can be overcome a bit because of the rotation of the earth around their asylum, so you can collect a number of radio waves. The main problem is that the definitive image will still sound. Kathy Bowman's algorithm causes your sound to be removed and build an acceptable image.

The information received by radio telescopes can be interpreted in different ways and thus an entire "zoo" of images can be created. However, one should think that the researchers just got the result of their ideas about how to see a black hole. There are strict restrictions dictated by what astronomers know about space. Scientists know what astronomical objects should look for and what they do not see. This can cause you to refuse a great number of options, which you can't see that can't be in the center of the galaxy.

When we say that we perform a simulation there & # 39; s generating a black flame in accordance with the examples of Einstein's relativity theory, then & # 39; t is an exotic object in the center of & # 39; s Milky Way posted. As a result, the data is simulated, so get the Event Horizon Telescope in this case. If the black hole were different (otherwise it did not agree), the data of the telescope would be completely different and the Bowman algorithm could get completely different images.

However, the algorithm is similar to the puzzle builder. He analyzes the scandalous data of telescopes and builds on its basis the general picture, with fragments of a thousand images of cosmic and even earthly objects that have been entered. When the image of a black hole (which we simulated) are received from various sets of images, scientists can be sure that the algorithm works well.

That is, in normal measure, a reconstructed photographer of a black hole, a collage of fragments of various treasures, even all. If the algorithm were hit, the result would be strongly dependent on the input images input, and instead of a black hole, researchers would, for example, take a photo of & # 39; get a wedding party.

All came together

The result of a super-massive black hole in the Galaxy M87 is similar to the examples of Einstein's relative theory, which promote & # 39; e mass and diameter of this exotic object. The size is greater than the solar system and reaches 40 billion kilometers. In addition, it contains a mass of 6.5 billion suns. The most noteworthy thing in photography, of which it's not taken, is the dark circles in & # 39; Painted in the middle of halo in bleached colors. This is the shadow of a black hole that matches the horizon of events.

The black praise itself cannot be seen, but its shadow is clearly visible in the & # 39; background. an absorbed substance. Poet's pool looks at the earth, so astronomers see hard gas "over a black hole". However, even if the black hole was visible from one side, the calculations see that the substance moves along such paths that the shadow would still be visible. Interestingly, the shape of the shadow can determine the various properties of a black hole (for example, if it rotates) and the difference between a wormhole.

Future achievements

To learn new details about the huge monster in M87, scientists need to examine the picture in detail. In addition, researchers are now processing data on the evaluation of the center of the Milky Way, where & # 39; t the black hole Sgr A * is located. It is possible that a more impressive snapshot of a supermassive black hole, much closer to Poeha, is "only" 25,000 light-years of & # 39; the earth will soon be published. For the Milky Way to be much calmer than the elliptical and active M87, astronomers can know more about the behavior of black holes in different environments.

In the future, astronomers will get even more tools included in & # 39; an Event Horizon Telescope network. For example, the Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona (USA) and the NOEMA millimeter grid are in French French Alps to learn the project by 2020. This provides a better view of the processes in & # 39; 39th the neighborhood of a black hole emerging. These include the relativistic jet, which is out of the core of M87 and is out of five thousand light years. And the use of electromagnetic penalties of a somewhat higher frequency should increase clarity of new photos.

Unfortunately, Russia remained on the sidelines and does not participate in the project. According to Vyacheslav Dokuchaev, a leading researcher at the Nuclear Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the country does not have millimeter-wave radio telephones that can be created on the Event Horizon Telescope.

Source link