Sunday , October 24 2021

Scientists have uncovered the secrets of a 125-year-old brain that helps to treat epilepsy.



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Research can open up a variety of forms of epilepsy and epilepsy that result from trauma, infection, or brain damage caused by tumors in the brain.

Since 1893, scientists have known about the mysterious structure of neurons surrounding neurons, but the function of these networks is unknown. However, a group of scientists at the University of Virginia led by Harald Sontheimer (Harald Sontheimer) concluded that this network regulates electrical stimulation of the brain. Moreover, they found that seizures can occur when the network is dismantled. Research published in the journal Nature Communications.

Early researchers have made this finding in mice suffering from epilepsy caused by glioblastoma, a fatal brain cancer, the first symptom of which is convulsions. Glioblastoma is the only cancer with limited space. Because the skull blocks the cancer from spreading out, the tumor creates an excessively exciting chemical neurotransmitter (glutamate) that kills adjacent healthy cells, creating a space for growth.

In addition to glutamate, these tumors secrete enzymes that target the destruction of the surrounding extracellular matrix. A gel-like material fixes the brain cells in place. Neuroblastoma is very malignant and is known to spread to the body. The secreted enzyme is a kind of knife that can move freely while cutting cancer cells.

Surprisingly, scientists have observed how enzymes can attack neurons surrounding Gamma-aminobutyric acid to prevent seizures.

Italian neuroscientist Camillo Golgi (Camillo Golgi) first discovered the neural network in 1893 but misunderstood its function. Golgi called the network "corset" and said it was most likely to block the exchange of messages between neurons. Sontheimer's work contradicts this. Scientists, on the other hand, have discovered that networks support messaging. Neurons covered with perineuronal nets have the ability to store smaller membrane capacities and electrical charges. In other words, it can trigger pulses and recharge up to 2 times more than non-nerve neurons.

If you suddenly lose the neural network, the results can be enormous. When applied to the brain without tumors, scientists have found that enzymatic degradation of the claw network is sufficient to cause seizures even in the absence of intact nerve cells.

Now the researcher's interest will be closer to making effective medicine by focusing on the role that the perineal network can regenerate in other forms of epilepsy (eg, head injury or brain infection).

"We have solved a 125-year neurological mystery! It is essential that the science is open, guarding the mind and answering old and new questions."

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 50 million people worldwide suffer from epilepsy and one third of them are not vulnerable to known epilepsy procedures.

Dmitri Mazalevsky



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