In the last 50 years, the prediction of Gordon Moore, one of the & # 39; The founders of the Intel Technology Company, dedicated to the microprocessor devices for computers, have been completed.
In 1965 the engineer said that every 18 months the number of transistors in silicone chips would be duperated.
Transistors are the intersection of microprocessors, essentially for the operation of any computer.
Shortly afterwards, he bought his calculation by saying that it would take 24 months and not 18. That was born Moore's Law.
The entrepreneur came to this conclusion empirically, and the passage of time has only been affixed.
Besides confirming that the power of computer would increase exponentiallyMoore said that at the same time the cost of factories would reduce composite computers.
But there is a problem.
Moore's Law has allowed the machines to work more and more rapidly over the years. However, the speed has a limit.
The transistors are smaller with the passage of time, but there will be a time that their size will not be able to continue.
If they were too many small They could not work well, the electrons would start jumping and reaching places they did not have to.
On the other hand, if the chip too much electronics is set for the computer faster, they can not overwound and, therefore, do not cool. There is then the risk that the chip burned.
In 1971, when Intel was still an unknown establishment in what was still unknown Silicon Valley, launched the first microprocessor in the market.
44 years later, when Intel was the world's largest producer of chips in the world, with annual profits of more than US $ 55,000 million, Skylake set up.
Sprayers are aware of the problem for many years. But it is so difficult and costly to go through the Moore's Law that many companies in this field in the hand towel in.
That does not mean, however, that the battle is lost.
BBC Focus resumes some technical innovations that are expected to solve the problem.
1. The quantum path
Instead of using bits (the unit that calculates the amount of information in the world of a traditional computer), quantum technology works with boulders called qubits.
The bits represent a value of 0 or 1. To understand this concept, occur in a sphere, can be the north pole and 1 the south pole.
The qubits, on the other hand, can represent any value on the surface of that area. This ensures that they can provide more information with less energy.
2. Counting processors
Exotic materials used in electronics have been detected.
One of them is a graph consisting of carbon monolayers and 40 times more resistant to diamonds. This material is a strong recipient to replace the silicone chips, it's very good as a conductor of electricity.
American universities have experimented with graphic translators who have worked 1,000 times faster than today's silicon tracts.
With less electrical resistance, the speed of graphene structures can be increased by 1000, even using less energy than ordinary technology.
3. The memrise
It is a hypothetical electronic component that was created at the beginning of '70s by an orthodox theorist.
The logic of the proposal? This component would be the flow of electrical streaming that would retain and adjust its resistance to that memory.
If it is organized on a straightforward way, transmitters may replace transistors, and since more memitors can be stored as transistors on a chip, the computer will work faster and have more memory capabilities with mother-in-law.
4. Liket chips
Many work on building the computer inspired by the functioning of neurons in & nbsp; t hars.
The Human Brain Project is, for example, financially financed by the European Union and is dedicated to the research new algorithm and computers that can repair the function of the brain.
But there are those who go further.
This is the case of Koniku, the first company dedicated to the development of these electronic devices with real neurons.
How? Renew the DNA of neurons so that they have certain characteristics and live and in good condition for two years in a "libbok".
According to the company, its research can be caused by a biological processor that would be used to detect the aroma of drugs or explosives.