A researcher at Tel Aviv University invented the first fully personalized tissue implants made up of the patient's own materials and cells to engineer various implants in a single small fat tissue biopsy and to create a risk of immune response I opened the way to organ transplant "virtually disappear."
In their study, researchers harvested adipose tissue from the patient's stomach to separate cells from other cell-free materials. The researchers turned the cells into pluripotent stem cells that could develop into some kind of cell, from neurons to cardiac and spinal cord cells.
Tal Dvir, professor of biotechnology at TAU, said, "The process of making stem cells from the body's adult cells is a well established process," said Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at the Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Center. Sagol Center for Regenerative Biotechnology led the study for research.
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Cell-free material was then taken and transformed into a personalized hydrogel, a biomaterial capable of supporting cells and forming functional tissues. By combining hydrogels and newly generated stem cells, scientists have created several types of tissue implants (spinal cord, dopamine, heart, and adipose tissue). This material can be transplanted into animals to minimize the immune response.
Researchers have also shown that these patient-specific biomaterials do not induce an immune response in humans. There is no immune response to personalized substances in animal and human blood, Dvir said. "It virtually eliminates the risk of immune response to organ transplants."
"So far researchers have used synthetic or animal materials to make stem cells," Dvir said in a telephone interview. However, such implants can induce immune responses leading to rejection of the implanted tissue. This means that patients receiving tissue or other biomaterial-based implants from artificial tissue or other animals are treated with their own immunosuppressive agents and endanger their health.
For this reason, Dvir is still in the experimental stage of developing such implants.
"In our case, we do not have the side effects of the immune system, depending on the patient's own cells and their own substances." We make patient-specific cells and personalized hydrogels, I showed you. "
The researchers tested rats with their own substances and tested foreign substances from other rats or pigs. In the latter case, the implant triggered an immune response.
In the second step, the researchers simulated implants in which both cells and hydrogels were derived from the patient's blood cells. It does not cause an immune response.
"There is a big difference," he said. "When a patient recognizes his or her biocompatible substance, there is no immune response."
The system can be used to design heart, spinal cord, cortex and other tissue implants to treat a variety of diseases, Dvir said. "Because the cells and materials used are all derived from the patient, the implants do not cause an immune response that ensures proper regeneration of damaged organs."
"We can create and insert cells that help regenerate spinal cord or infarcted heart or brain damage," he said. To treat Parkinson's disease, patients can be transplanted with nerve cells that secrete dopamine.
The study was conducted by Dr. Dau's postdoctoral researcher, Dr. It was conducted by Reuven Edri and Ph.D. students Nadav Noor and Idan Gal and was conducted in collaboration with Dan Peer, Prof. Irit Gat Viks of TAU Cell Research and Immunology Department and Lior Heller of Assaf HaRofeh. Recently published in Advanced Materials.
"Our technology allows us to engineer all types of tissue and efficiently regenerate organs after heart transplantation, post-traumatic brain Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injuries, etc." You can design fat-producing (fat tissue) implants for reconstructive surgery or cosmetics. These implants are not rejected by the body. "
The researchers are regenerating an injured spinal cord and a heart infarcted with a spinal cord and a heart graft. They also began investigating the possibility of human dopamine implants to treat Parkinson's disease in animal models. At a later stage, researchers plan to regenerate other organs, including bowel and eye, using the patient's own materials and cells.
"I want to experience trials about humans as soon as possible," he said. However, in order to do this, the startup company must be set up to determine the best method.
"We believe that technology that engineers all types of tissue-specific implants can regenerate all organs with minimal risk of immune response," Dvir said. "The sky is the limit."