Thursday , April 22 2021

I see you: In the first instance, Israel-French team finds neurons that don't respond to all faces



A new study of Israelis and French researchers says it was first identified, neurons in the human visual cortex that can respond to selections.

"Many studies have been done on people", about how they are accountable, said Vadim Axelrod, head of the Consciousness and Cognitive Laboratory at the GdB (Goldschmidt) Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center at the Bar-Ilan University, # 39 completed the study. "But this is the first time we have recorded human neurons that are responding to faces in" "visual shorts," he said in a telephone interview with The Times of Israel.

"The research" is an important step in better understanding the mechanism of how & # 39; t a face is processed in the human family "at a cellular level, Axelrod said. The find "can help you understand how & # 39; people recognize the faces."

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Axelrod collaborated with a team of Institut du Cerveau et la Moelle Épinière and Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris, under the leadership of Prof. Lionel Naccache. The study was published in & # 39; a January 22nd of & # 39; e neurology, the medical journal of & # 39; an American Academy of & # 39; e neurology.

An illustration of how & # 39; t face the neighbors in & # 39; react a human Fusiform Face Area to faces and objects; (Vadim Axelrod; Reproduced credits for individual images with permission: Avishai Taicher; ewrfpiuqwnpiqfnpwi; Moshe Sinai and shutterstock.com)

"Known faces are central to the destruction of" people "," said Axelrod. All of our social interaction is based on our ability to handle associations and their differences: it delivers our people who we know, even if we haven't seen them for a long time, identify messages, refer our feelings, trust and more.

In her research, the researchers show that the neurons in the physical cortex are much more strongly & # 39; e faces respond to city or objects. The neurons are located in & # 39; the back of & # 39; a Fusiform face, in & # 39; next to the Fusiform face area, in & # 39; Lately one of the most extensively studied resin ranges and the largest and probably the most important in & # 39; a sales event, say the researchers in a statement of & # 39; .

An illustration of how neurons respond to a human visual cortex on a face – from French actor Catherine Deneuve, in contrast to an object, in this case, a fan, see photo below (YouTube screenshot; Georges Biard)

A high neurologist was found both for visions of famous people as well as Charles Aznavour, Nicolas Sarkozy, Catherine Deneuve, and Louis De Funes, and for faces unknown for the participation in the experiment. In an extra experiment, the neurons showed that they can distinguish between human and distant faces that they appear within a movie – a clip of Charlie Chaplin's "The Circus".

An illustration how to respond to neurons in the human-visual short on an object – in that case a fan – (YouTube screen)

"In the early years of discovering Prof. Charles Gross and colleague's the neurons in the visual cortex of makke monkeys that responded to faces," Axelrod said An explanation. "In human being has examined face selective activities, mainly using non-invasive tools, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electrophysiology (EEG)."

"Notable," he added, face-neurons in the posterior temporal visual cortex "have never been identified in anyone. In our study, we have a very rare chance to recreate neural activities in a single patience , while microelectrodes were occupied in & mdash; & gt; Fusiform Face Area & quot;

Axelrod said the researchers were staring at neurons when studying a patient who had an epilepsy. "We put the electrodes near that area," he said. "We were happy."

So far, the only neuron that is found to be responsive is the so-called "Jennifer Aniston cells" – neurons that are included in & # 39; s medial temporal praise. A brain is the one that responds to various images of a specific person, in this case Jennifer Aniston, in an original study in Rodrigo Quiroga's nature and his colleague's in 2005.

Actress Jennifer Aniston (YouTube screenshot)

The Quiroga team researchers found that these cells only respond to photos of specific people – such as Jennifer Aniston, Bill Clinton, or the Beatles. These neurons were said to respond to the notion of a person, even a drawing, a picture or a masked image, the researchers said.

The neurons in the visual cortex identified by the Israeli-French researchers are very different from & # 39; The neurons found by the Quiroga team say Axelrod, "they react strongly to any kind of face, without the identity of a person".

In addition, these newly born neurons react much earlier, he said.

"In our case, a strong response within 150 milliseconds could be determined from an image," he said. "The & # 39; Jennifer Aniston cells & # 39; may get 300 milliseconds or more to respond."

These findings can also help to understand gender measurements on types of bridges, such as in monasteries and humans. "It's really interesting," says Axelrod, "since nearly half of an century since the discovery of face neurons in macaques, it is now possible to prove similar neurons in many people."


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