Within the gastrointestinal (GI) funnel are trillions of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi and viruses. You have the same number of microorganisms there, mostly in the large intestine, if you do human cells in your entire body. But only 10% to 20% of the bacteria you have in your right will be shared with everyone.
Microbes & me
Life in us all
Microbes & me is a new collaboration community between BBC Future and BBC Good Food.
In & # 39; series, we will look to recent baking microbiome that lives in us.
We will investigate how it affects our health, which can have adverse effects on, and recommend recipes that can help it.
These microbiomas differ greatly from person to person, depending on service, lifestyle and other factors, and affect everything from our health to our appetites, weight and mood. But in spite of one of the most researched parts of the body, there is still a long way to fully understand our birds. BBC Future has renewed the findings of some of the science so far.
Our diets have a great influence on the good microbiome. Research has found links between western money, typically high in beast and fat and low-keyed, with increased production of cancer change and inflammation. The Mediterranean dite, at other hand, which is typically high in plain and low-fat meat, has been changed to increased levels of short-chain fatty acids, which have been found in anti-inflammatory effects and improve the immune system.
Scientists hope that popular-wide research will continue to fulfill existing findings. One kind of project, the ongoing US American Stud, is the collection and comparison of thousands of thousands of people's microbiome in & # 39; a united states. In addition, studies see those who have their bikes have more plant-based diets have a more different microbiome, and one that is "totally different" from who's not, so says Daniel McDonald, the scientist director of & # 39; s project.
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"We cannot say that one end is healthy or healthy, but we suspect that those who have a diet are rich in fruits and vegetables have a healthy microbioma," he says. . McDonald, however, makes it unclear if and how radical switching of a diet high in plant-based foods to a diet lowers the health of selling the microbiom.
There is a lot of hype in the & # 39; past years & # 39; The health benefits of prebiotics and probiotics, however, while being increasingly used in treatments, such as intellectual disability, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, several giants see it further investigating which stins and teachers are effective.
Eran Elinav, a ymologist at the Weizmann Institute for Science in Israel, recently confirmed that ordinary staff is immune to probiotic – although he does this in a relatively small study that can investigate research for all concrete responses. He gave 25 healthy people or 11 attempts or placebo, and tested their microbiomas and function with colonoscopic and endoscope types and three weeks after the intervention.
"People can be divided into two groups – those who were trying probiotics by indigenous microbiomas and colonizing the GI tract, whereby probiotics changed a microbiom, and those who were resistant. By lying in, and almost nothing, "he says.
The researchers were able to talk about which category a person would have disappeared by investigating functions in their microbiom. Elinav says that his findings have a need for more enhanced tailoring for probiotics testing after the needs of private individuals.
Good microbiota has an important role to play in & # 39; a GI tract, with evidence that conditions such as removal of bowel syndrome (IBS) often correspond to altered microbiota. But it also plays a very big role in our health, and this is largely determined in the first few years of life.
Our microbioma begins to develop when we are born, when microbes colonize human good. Babies who have been given natural birth have been found to get higher backbone if Caesarean part is worthy of the contact they make with their mother's gut and intestinal tract, says Lindsay Hall, microbiome research leader at Quadram Institute Bioscience .
"C-sector children's books are missing out on the first inoculation, and some of the micros that come into contact with them will come from" "the skin and the environment," says Hall.
Many studies have shown that C-secs promote long-term health – Lindsay Hall
"This is very important for children's books to develop their immune systems. The latest work has suggested that discrimination in the foreign good microbiome has negative negative effects on household health," she says.
"Many studies have shown that C-secs affect longer-term health, and there is strong evidence that they are leading to a higher risk of allergy development, and a less robust ecosystem that means you are more involved in changes and disorders. Like antibiotics.
"However, it is not a powerful proof of what this difference means specific to the immune system."
There are also differences in microbials of breast and formula-fed children. Bifidobacterium, a group that bears healthy health, is often found in babies' breasts.
"We know that Bifidobacterium is able to find permits that are found in breast milk. These components are not normally found in formula milk, why are formula-fed children less of them," says Hall.
Scientists will get closer to understanding how & # 39; the good thing can also be used to treat illness. One of the most recent treatments on the field is fiscal microbiota transplants, where it is a microbiota without a person in a good patience.
The procedure is used to treat antibiotic-resistant intestinal bacteria, clostridium difficile, which can infect the dolin and cause diarrhea. Although there is no conclusive evidence of the underlying mechanism, it is believed that the transplant is a microbiome with several backbones that helps it to fight it.
We don't know what is normal, but also what is normal for each individual – Fiona Pereira
The big question about these transplants is what a normal good microbiome is.
"We have not established what is normal, but also what is normal for each individual depends on their ethnic, environmental and other things that have gone through the body," says Fiona Pereira, head of business development and strategy for the Department of Surgery and Cancer at Imperial College London, which examines the relationship between microbiome and diabetes.
Pereira says if scientists can clearly understand what is suitable in different ethnic groups and age groups, they can tell a person and see how they represent and relate to what they relate to – it can be diabetes, environment or genetic predispositions to certain diseases.
It is well established that antibiotics can dramatically change our drug microbiota.
Good is an environment in which harmlessness and beneficial attacks are in very close contact with opportunistic patterns that cause infections, says Willem van Schaik, professor at the University of Birmingham and leading a new study researcher 39, more than 6,000 new antibiotic resistance genes in disease.
He found that most of these symptoms do not coincide with DNA that can be overblown, which means there is no direct risk of spreading these genes from normal bacteria to disease.
Our findings highlight how many resistance genes are in one microbiome and can mobilize potential for opportunistic patterns – Willem van Schaik
Many of the medications that are diagnosed in some defining areas may be expanded by antibiotic abuse, which is not being pushed & # 39; They can resist resistant genes in one back cell, mobilizing them.
"Our findings highlight how many resistance genes are in one microbiome and can be mobilized to potentially become opportunistic disease. They must be seen as a warning that there is a large reservoir of these healings that we want to" "we do not want to mobilize" , van Schaik says.
The brain and the good have a strong, two-way communication bar called "gut-brain". Each is essential for the other – studies have found that development is & # 39; the brain is alternating in & # 39; the absence of a microphone. A recent review, however, suggested that research has not been delayed, which is precisely critical of the brain development critical.
Furthermore, the development of how & # 39; it integrates is well under investigation, such as our intent and mental health, so says Katerina Johnson, a researcher of & # 39; a microbiom-go-resin business at Oxford University.
"Research shows that if we take beneficial bites of human beings and colonize the mice from their mouse, the mice see changes in their behavior and physiology that are characteristic of depression", she says.
Good microbes can report most neurotransmitters in the human family, including serotonin, which plays an important role in mood regimes. Herein hope scientists can quickly understand how microbes are used to make neurotransmitters to treat psychiatric and neurological accidents that have our microbiomas, such as Parkinson's disease and more sclerosis.
Hold and carry
We also began to see how well microbes can affect. Some studies, largely conducted in animals, for example, determine that some species may have hymns and habits to make animals more social.
Germ-free animals that do not have a microphone exhibit deficiencies in & # 39; A social behavior, and researchers have found this to be restored by specific types of bacteria such as Lactobacillus, often found in yoghurt, according to Johnson.
Modified changes are probably a by-product of processes that help microorganisms grow and compete in good, such as fermentation
A recent paper titled & # 39; Why Has The Microbiome Affected? & # 39; Researched the theory that the good microbiome has evolved to create its human host for its own success, many as parasites, by making the host more socially convinced.
However, the paper argued that this theory is unlikely, and behavioral changes are likely to be a by-product of processes that grow and compete with microorganisms in good, like fermentation.
"The good microbiom is so different that, even if there is a kind of backbone it should be active chambers for our ways, this bacteria would soon come out with other backbones, without investing extra energy to put it together", says Johnson, one of the authors of the papers.
Science has not yet defined what a healthy microbiome looks like, and a conclusion still appears somewhat. But there is consensus why environmental issues, such as diet and antibiotics, introduce our microbiome more like our genes, and that a more different microbiome is better for us.
"Because we can change our microbiome with our diabetes, they will have a set point where they often return to a temporary storm," Johnson says. "But one thing we can do is eat more, to increase the variety of one's animal, which is often associated with health."
While there have been many benefits in microphone research over the past few years, there are also some challenges.
One of these is the reliance on a method called 16S rRNA sequencing, says McDonald, who's looking at a specific region of a single gene that believes in all the bites. E. coli is an example of why this method is too broad, McDonald says.
"If there is a pogogen, there is also E. coli that plays a neutral or advantageous role in any farm, which is not all distinguished by the current method that you & # 39; we use. An increase in the level of E. coli does not mean that it is bad for you. "
McDonald's advice is that we should be careful.
"There are many cool things that will investigate microbiome, and there are exciting developments at the bottom of the line, but while continuing to lead to improvement of health, many of these substances is linked to basic research, and there are many studies we can do with mice that we cannot be translated to humans, if it's not safe to do so. "
In the meantime, most scientists may be advised to eat our greens.
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