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Astronomers Trace History of Universe's Star Formation Astronomy



Astronomers believe our universe began to form the first stars when it was a hundred million years old. Since then, the universe has become a star formation tour the force. There are now two trilogy galaxies and a trilion trilion star. The astronomers analyzed new methods of starlight measurement of data from NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope to find the history of star formation over most of the world of # the world.

This map of the whole sky shows the location of 739 blazers in & # 39; NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's measurement of the extra-anal background. The background shows the sky when it appears in gamma races with energy over 10 billion electron volt, constructed from nine-year observations of Fermi's Large Area Telescope. The aircraft of our Milky Way Galaxy runs the center of the plot. Image credit: NASA / DOE / Fermi LAT Collaboration.

This map of the whole sky shows the location of 739 blazers in & # 39; NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's measurement of the extra-anal background. The background shows the sky when it appears in gamma races with energy over 10 billion electron volt, constructed from nine-year observations of Fermi's Large Area Telescope. The aircraft of our Milky Way Galaxy runs the center of the plot. Image credit: NASA / DOE / Fermi LAT Collaboration.

One of the main goals of & # 39; The Fermi mission was to evaluate extragalactic background (EBL), a cosmic mist that has been completed by all ultraviolet, visible and infrared light stars have made about the history of ' the world.

"From data collected by the Fermi telescope, we can measure the total amount of starlight valued," said Dr. Marco Ajello, an astrophysicist of # 39; the University of Clemson.

"Most of this light is broadcast by stars that live in galaxies, and so has us to better understand the evolutionary process and bring great insights into how the universe has its light content."

Dr. Ajello and co-authors analyze nearly nine years of gamma-ray signals from 739 blazers.

"Blazers are galaxies that supermassive black holes have elapsed small collylated jets of energy particles that come from their galaxies and spread over cosmos at almost the speed of light," they declared .

"If one of these jets goes directly to earth, then it is even apparent that it is coming from far."

Gamma rayon fines that ultimately collect the jet products with the cosmic nose, leave an observable impression.

This causes the astronomers to measure the density of mistakes, not just in a specific place, but also at a certain time in & nbsp; the history of 'universe.

"Gamma rays are the highest energy source of light, they are so inexpensive, in the sense that their interactions with starlight have unexpected consequences. When the lightweight frequencies of the light are collided, they can be calculated by Albert Einstein's renowned E = mc2, "Be Dr. Alberto Dominguez, an astrophysicist at the University of Madrid Complutense.

"Gamma ray photons that travel through a mist of starlight have a major problem that they are supposed to add," adds Dr. Ajello.

"By measuring how many photons are included, we can measure the degree of ignition and measurement, as the function of time, how much light it was in full wavelengths."

According to the new measurement, the number of photon – particles of visible light – that in & # 39;84.

"Using brushes at different distances from us, we have measured the total starlight in different time periods," said Dr. Vaidehi Paliya, a post-doctoral researcher at Clemson University.

"We measure the total starlight of each era – one billion years ago, two billion years ago, six billion years ago, etc. – Always returned to the first star first."

"This will let us reconstruct the EBL and confirm the star formation history of the universe in a more effective manner than ever before."

The study was published in the magazine Science.

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S. Abdollahi and others. (De Fermi-LAT Collaboration). 2018. A gamma ray determination of & # 39; the star shape of & # 39; the universe. Science 362 (6418): 1031-1034; doi: 10.1126 / science.aat8123


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